Archive for the ‘Disi’ Category


Radium in the Disi Aquifer

March 1, 2009

There has been a large response to a research paper published in Environmental Science and Technology by Avner Vengosh at Duke and a group of researchers, including ones in Jordan (Omar Rimawi, Abdallah Zoubi and Emad Akkawi at Al Balqa Applied University). The paper reports a finding of very high concentrations of the natural isotopes of radium in the water of the Disi Aquifer in the south of the country.

From a psychological perspective, the news is very bad, as it combines peoples’ extreme fear of all things radioactive with a concern that the long awaited savior (the Disi conduit) may never be implemented. But, what do the findings mean and what don’t they mean?

The ministry of water and irrigation put out a statement denying that there are abnormal amounts of radiation in the water used for drinking. It is important to note the difference between having high total radiation and having high concentrations of radium. The confusion caused by the name of the isotope should not be used to change the subject. The total radioactivity may be low, but at the same time individual isotopes may be higher than standards set as limits for them by regulators.

Radium falls in the second column of the periodic table, making it an alkali earth, like calcium. As such, it may be absorbed into calcium-bearing tissue in the body (mostly bone), which means that it would pose a danger as an internal radiation source at high enough concentrations. Radium is also worrisome because it emits alpha particles, which cause the most damage when absorbed internally.

But how are “high enough” concentrations determined? There are various ways to determine this. Some claim that there is no such thing as a “safe exposure level”. If this is the case, then everybody is in trouble, because we are all exposed to various types of ionizing radiation all the time. The average human being is exposed to about 300 millirems per year, which varies according to latitude, altitude and geology of where he/she lives. It is impossible to get away from this minimal exposure no matter what a person does.

Researchers use different approaches at determining “safe exposure limits”. In my opinion, the most satisfying is the use of epidemiological data, where a large population living under certain conditions is compared statistically with the general population. Based on such data, US standards for combined 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water is 5 pCi (picocuries) per liter. This works out to 73 mrem after an exposure of 30 years.

Setting standards is not an exact science, and in the case of radiation, exposure limits are typically set along the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Beyond that, linking the disease with an environmental factor by plotting the amount of exposure and the number of cancer cases on a scatter diagram. If there is a link between exposure and cancer increases, a correlation can be seen between increasing exposure and increasing cancer rates. Typically, the correlation is very distinct at high exposures and less so at low exposures. At some point, when cancer incidence reaches background levels, the relationship between exposure and cancer incidence becomes questionable.

In the case of radium, studies of exposure are extensive and have been summarized in book published by Argone National Laboratories in the US under the title “Radium in Humans: A review of US studies” (available here). This book well illustrates how epidemiological studies work. It describes exposures to dial paint workers, people who drank radium spiked water for “medicinal” purposes as well as people who lived in areas with high radium water supplies. The conclusion (on page 112) is that a threshold can be set at 1000 cGy (equivalent to 10 Grey or 1000 rad). This is echoed in page 2 of the book, which states that “No symptoms from internal radium have been recognized at levels lower than those associated with radium-induced malignancy. Radium levels 1,000 times the natural 226Ra levels found in all individuals apparently do little or no recognizable damage. These statements may suggest that a threshold exists for radium-induced malignancies; at least, they recognize that the available data demonstrate a steep dose response, with the risk dropping very rapidly for lower radium doses”.

Thus, it is no surprise to read cases like the town in Illinois that had to set up an expensive radium removal facility to remedy its high radium waters, only to see the EPA change the drinking water standard by a factor of 10, which would have made the facility pointless. The EPA seems to have kept the old standard, but it is illustrative that a good case could have been made to set the standards at 50 pCi instead of 5 pCi.

So, how does the Disi water stack up? According to the published paper, 226Ra concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.13 Bq/l (2.7 to 30.5 pCi/l), with a median of about 0.9 Bq/l (24.3 pCi). For 228Ra, the concentrations range from 0.12 to 2.14 Bq/l (3.2 to 37.8 pCi/l). The waters thus range from meeting the EPA standards to those reaching 20 times the said standards.

Thus, in dealing with questions related to radium content in the water of the Disi aquifer, three points need to be made. The first is that the science and data used to formulate the standards needs to be critically evaluated, as the standards may be too stringent and the benefits derived from removing the radium from the water may be questionable. The second point is that the water from the various sources of the aquifer will be mixed together and with those from other sources, and so the water reaching the consumer will have lower radium contents, depending on the mixing ratios and the contents of the different sources. The third point is that radium can be removed from the water if epidemiological data justifies the cost of doing so.


The Disi project

August 16, 2008

After decades of starting and stalling, the Disi water conveyance project is finally being implemented. In essence, the project is a pipeline to pump about 100 million cubic meters of water from the Disi aquifer in southern Jordan, near the Saudi Arabian Border, to an increasingly thirsty Amman.

The Disi aquifer is a shared sandstone aquifer split between Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The water is of excellent quality, and until now, the water has been exploited by both sides for agricultural purposes, with some being used to supply the city of Aqaba. Debate over expanded use of the resources was centered on the following issues:

  1. The use of water in Saudi Arabia. This was (and still is, to a smaller extent), used to plant wheat in the northern Saudi desert. The perceived wasteful use of water in an enterprise that is not economically viable has encouraged Jordan to grab as much of the water while it lasts (More on the conflict here).

2. Cost. Much of the delay in implementation of the project was attributed to negotiations over cost with the contractor. Since the BOT model was used (because the Jordanian government didn’t have the cash at hand), this meant that the cost of implementation and operation would reflect on the cost of water when it reached Amman. Duraid Mahasneh has argued that it would be more viable to encourage people to move south that to pump the water to the north.

3. Sustainability. Because the aquifer lies in the desert, little recharge is expected to replenish the aquifer. Government spokesmen have suggested that the water will last anywhere from 50 to 100 years. Much debate has been centered around whether the aquifer consists solely of “fossil”, i.e., non replenishable water or whether there is a recharge component in the hydrological system. Study of stable and radiocarbon isotopes of the water suggests that the water is very old (over 25,000 years). Estimates of recharge volumes range from zero to 48 million cubic meters per year (out of a total stored volume of 6 billion cubic meters). This later number was obtained by Elias Salameh and Raja Gedeon, who used a robust technique known as the Chloride Mass Balance approach. While CMB is a good tool, it tends to overestimate rather than underestimate recharge values. While there is significant evidence that recharge is taking place in the area, little has been done to use this information as a marketing tool for the project. The implication is that the project may be more sustainable than the government is suggesting.

On the other hand, El Naser and Gideon in a 1996 IAEA technical document point out that there are different types of water in the Disi basin. There is low quality water in the so-called Khreim aquifer that overlies the good quality water in the Rum aquifer. While the paper does not express serious concern about salination of the Rum aquifer, it may be something to watch out for.

It is notable that more data about the hydrogeology of the Disi basin is not available. The issue of recharge, in particular, needs more scrutiny.

Anyway, the project is now upon us, for better or for worse. There are now two approaches to managing the new system. The first is to simply pump as much water as we can to meet increasing demands, and to leave the worrying over what to do later to future generations. The second is to try and manage the aquifer in such a way as to sustain extraction. This can be done by balancing recharge with extraction, and attempting to enhance recharge. This can be done by obtaining a better understanding of the surface hydrology of the area and determining where recharge tends to occur. We owe it to our children to try and adopt the second approach.